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the head of the castes, with no other power than that which
the religion and faith in it gave them, acknowledged by the
warrior caste in whose hands was all the force of society as
superiors, yet forming a league with them to govern the social
system. The Kshatriyas, say the laws of Manu, cannot
prosper without the Brahmans ; the Brahmans cannot rise
without the Kshatriyas ; united, the priestly and military
classes rise in this world and in the other. (Laws of Manu,
ix., 322.) These laws abound in exalting the Brahmans, in
giving them privileges above the military class from whom the
kings proceeded, in regarding them, apart from their religious
functions, to be deserving of the highest reverence. "In-
structed or ignorant, a Brahman is a powerful divinity, just
as the fire consecrated or not consecrated is a powerful
divinity.'3 " Even when they give themselves to all sorts of
mean employments they ought to be constantly honored, for
they have in them something eminently divine." (Ibid., ix.,
3*7* 3I9-) As, besides this innate pre-eminence of birth,
they had the sacred books in their hands, with all the multi-
tude of religious performances necessary to prevent the effects
of ceremonial uncfeanness in this world and after death, as in
the law religion and political duties were indissolubly united,
as they monopolized philosophy, speculation, and the knowl-
edge of ascetic discipline, it is not strange that they could
keep their control in India for thousands of years and through
many revolutions of society. The kings do not seem to have
been specially jealous of them, but an alliance subsisted be-
tween the two higher^ classes for the governmeut of the two
lower and more numerous. Their position under the laws
made them, when guilty of crime, subject to lighter punish-
ment, and subjected others who injured them to a much
heavier condemnation than if they had injured others. The
king is warned to avoid irritating Brahmans by taking their
goods, "for once irritated they would destroy him on the
spot with his army and equipage by their imprecations and
magic sacrifices/' (Ibid., ix., 313.)
Much the same may be said of the Egyptian classes as of